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在向西的潮流中,我们向东

明月松间照,清泉石上流。

这是王维在《山居秋暝》中的诗句。中国人喜欢自然,也喜欢在游园赏景时抒发情怀。这也是中国园林发展、绵延至今的原因。

在向西的潮流中,我们向东

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雏形之美

说起中国园林最早可以追溯到3000多年以前商、周时代的“囿”(yòu),此时是中国园林发展的“自然时期”。囿不具备太多的功能性,仅供王室、贵族们狩猎、游园,但已有“崇尚自然”的园林意境。

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▲周文王——灵囿

到了汉代,“囿”不仅仅是自然山林和简单的房屋组合,增添了寝宫殿宇等生活设施,还配置了观赏动植物的殿宇、人工山水等景色。汉武帝的上林苑中就建有“昭台宫”、“云林馆”等寝殿,“鹿观”、“虎圈观”等动物圈观,并从各地移植“核桃”、“紫桃”等植物栽种在殿宇四周。此时“囿”具备了初步的“园林”属性,名字也改称为“苑”。

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▲汉武帝——上林苑图

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▲汉武帝——上林苑图

在向西的潮流中,我们向东

诗词意境之美

中国园林到了唐朝,由于疆域面积的扩大、经济的飞速发展和多民族融合,那一时期繁荣的文化艺术赋予了中国园林更多的文学内涵和脉络。文人和官员更喜欢将园林变成一个社交场所,园林艺术展现出前所未有的蓬勃生机。

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▲周文矩《琉璃堂人物图》

此时的园林突显出两个特点:一是在园林建造中注意营造游乐和赏景的体验,如在殿宇建筑外,开始迭石造山、凿池引泉,并且十分注重景物之间的布局关系,形成融洽的园林环境,满足了休憩、游赏、宴乐之功能。

在向西的潮流中,我们向东

其次是诗歌与绘画的融入使得造园艺术得到升华,文人骚客泼墨山水,能于“咫尺之间便觉万里之遥”。比如自在写意的王维,他将对自然的细微洞察力挥洒于诗画之间,晚年隐居的“辋川别墅”就是由他亲自设计的。一草一木皆是有感而发,曾多次为辋川别墅题诗作画,创造了深远、简约、朴素而留有余韵的园林形式。同时赋予辋川别墅浓厚的文学意境。

在向西的潮流中,我们向东

▲王维 辋川图

宋朝时的园林在景观意境营造上有了深化,布景的设计手法逐渐成熟。

如借景的设计手法,则是在天然形成的景观区造园,减少人为工程,借助自然取景。

或者是营造曲径通幽的意境,在竹林、树林中开辟小道,将屋舍建造在婉转道路的尽头。

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这一时期最具代表性的作品是宋徽宗营建的“艮(gèn)岳”,其中综合了宋代众多的园林设计元素和设计手法。据记载,此园冈连阜属,东西相望,前后相续,左山而右水,后溪而旁垄,连绵而弥满,吞山而怀谷。可谓是“括天下之美,藏古今之胜”。不幸的是这样的人间仙境消失在了战火之中,但通过遗留下来的画作依然可以感受到艮岳的盛况。

在向西的潮流中,我们向东

▲艮岳图

在向西的潮流中,我们向东

自然融合之美

中国园林发展最鼎盛的时期要属明、清两朝。在崇祯年间,中国园林就已经有了系统、专业的书籍。江苏吴江的计成撰写了《园冶》一书,这是中国园林第一本艺术理论专著。其中论述了宅园、别墅营建的原理和具体手法,汇总了众多造园经验。

在向西的潮流中,我们向东

明清时呈现的园林意境不在拘泥于文学与自然景物的融合,而是在其基础之上营造自然界的缩影,从而极大程度上丰富了中国园林的功能性和形式。此外在明清时期的园林还形成南北不同的流派,分为皇家园林与私家园林。

在向西的潮流中,我们向东

北方园林以皇家为主,占地面积广,气势恢宏。北海公园便是皇家园林的代表作之一,其面积达68公顷,殿宇亭台多在自然山水的基础上建造,建筑宏伟,色彩丰富,却又能悄然融于自然之中,并且北海公园园林设计的布局十分巧妙,建筑、山水、花木可以因景互借,营造衬托之美,也可移步换景,展现景观元素的秀丽。

在向西的潮流中,我们向东

▲北海公园

南方园林则以私家园林为主,相比皇家园林来讲不注重规模和气势,而是营造一种温婉动人的意境,烘托细腻之美。

拙政园是江南私家园林的代表,无论是从布局还是意境营造都十分细腻。以池水为中心,楼阁轩榭与池水相依,其间选用漏窗、回廊相连的设计手法,展现南方园林细微之处的柔美。

在向西的潮流中,我们向东

▲拙政园

除此之外,留园也是南方园林的代表作品。留园因奇石众多而知名,对石的运用堪称一绝,尤其是“冠云峰”乃太湖石中的绝品,相传这块奇石是宋徽宗艮岳中的遗物,它齐集太湖石“瘦、皱、漏、透”四奇于一身,将假山石的艺术美发挥到极致。

在向西的潮流中,我们向东

▲留园 太湖石

在向西的潮流中,我们向东

▲留园 青石

中国园林历经几千年历史洗礼,形成深厚的文化意蕴,展现着独特的东方美学意境 。如今中国园林的意境逐渐渗入到人们对庭院生活的追求中,在西方元素占据主流的今天,园林给予人们的是介于出世与入世之间的惬意,比起向西潮流中的嘈杂,我更爱东方意境中的自在。

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